We have speech bubbles
We have contrails, but I'm not sure that tag applies to all situations.
We freezeframes. This covers things like showing a bullet frozen in flight or other such improbable sights that are common in comic books.
Do we have?:
Motion indicators (motion lines, motion graphics)
Like motion blur, but it is not. It is a visual cue to indicate motion and it is very unlike blur. But, not always completely inexplicable. For instance, if a character is swinging a torch, smoke makes a reasonable Motion indicator even if unrealistically drawn. At airshows, planes create smoke trails on purpose to better show motion. This resembles contrails but isn't really.
See this wikipedia
A textbook example:
like onomatopoeia, without the words.
This shows floating panels. Note a character in the 'behind' panel is actually in front of the floating panels (this may be yet another tag, it happens with speech bubbles also).