The factions have asymmetric gameplay.
Alternate name: Unique factions
The first video game about Asymmetric factions was released in 1980.
Generally this means each faction has their own way of going about things. For example, one faction may construct a mine as usual but needs workers to constantly mine and deliver the minerals to another site, while another faction might simply build a device that mines and teleports the minerals to storage, and yet third might have a large mobile mining platform that moves to the mining site, mines for a long period of time before returning to some storage facility. Each providing weaknesses and strengths the others don't have. Though more commonly the resource gathering is the same across the factions while rest of the units are different.
3+ factions, Symmetric factions