Uses a central location which connects to all others, with the player returning to it after finishing each other level. Usually has very few or no enemies, little to no exploring, occasionally some unlockable areas, and so forth.
The first video game about Level hub was released on December 1990.
Implied: level select, level replay
This does not cover smaller hubs that connect few levels together before you lose access to them as you move forward in the game (e.g. Hexen).
Note that the TV Tropes Hub Level is very flexible on what constitutes as a hub level, many of the examples there are not worthy of existing here (e.g. Ultima Underworld II).